Constellation Marine Services https://constellationms.com Speed of Response is Our Biggest Virtues Wed, 10 Apr 2019 16:44:50 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.0.4 96231671 Towage Approval Surveys – Don’t get PULLED in the wrong direction. https://constellationms.com/towage-approval-surveys-dont-get-pulled-in-the-wrong-direction/ Thu, 14 Mar 2019 12:23:57 +0000 https://constellationms.com/?p=7449 Continue reading Towage Approval Surveys – Don’t get PULLED in the wrong direction.]]> Towage Approval

Towage Approval Surveys – Don’t get PULLED in the wrong direction

Towing operations, of any kind, customary or non-customary, are inherently risky; however it is known that these risks can be managed and reduced with due diligence and good seamanship, and this starts with a duty of care prior to commencement of the voyage.It has been reported that there is an increase in the number of towage incidents, many of which have resulted in serious injuries, collisions, groundings, pollution, damage to property and loss of cargo.

Most tug and barge safety regulations focus on hardware and yet experience shows that a good safety record depends upon the safety culture of the entire company. The hardware issues are important, including the proper maintenance and inspection of equipment, but managing the human factor successfully would also lessen the number of accidents.

To that end, a pre voyage towage approval survey is an essential activity to assist those involved in this evolution, to ensure safety and integrity of the personnel and asset is maintained.

In our experience, we have seen most ports diligently require the issuance of a towage approval survey prior to the commencement of the voyage, but many operators treat this as a nuisance, sometimes construed as a monitory expense deemed unnecessary. Notwithstanding the same, towage approval survey to establish if the towage arrangements for the tow, including the towing vessel or tug/s, the towed unit/s and cargo are fit for the intended voyage, will assist operators in avoiding additional expenses due to risks that may have not been otherwise observed, and assist in preserving their cover for such risks.

Having said that, these must be carried out by an experienced and independent surveyor.

Constellation Marine services have, within their fold, qualified and experienced Master Mariners, towing experts and naval architects, who understand that in the context of towing operations, assets with different design features have different characteristics, and each poses a set of reactions different form the other.

It is extremely important to realize that towage approval surveys go beyond just the visual inspection of the towing gear, but should include every facet of the operation, from the planning, preparation, checks and contingency.

Constellation Marine services are thus capable of offering bespoke services which can include bollard pull calculations and adequacy checks, stability and seakeeping characteristic assessment, lashing calculations, testing and certification of tow gear and equipment, in addition to the nominal requirements associated with towage apprhoval surveys.

With over 2500 towage approval surveys under our belt, as an experience statement and with no recorded incident to those assets approved for towage, our surveyors exhibit a keen eye and sense to highlight those issues that may generally be over looked by others. We base our observations and recommendations on the highest standards and guidelines, and this is manifested by our accreditation from the UAE Federal transport Authority for towage approval surveys.

Not to mention that fact that faced with insuring a tow project, the underwriter may compulsively need know that a competent surveyor has physically inspected the tug and tow and approved the arrangements.

In addition, constellation Marine can and is providing bespoke towage familiarization to those companies involved in towage operations, by way of seminars and in house training. This again reiterates our commitment to the safety standards the industry is aiming for.

The importance in choosing the right Towage approval surveyor cannot be overstated.  Engage a survey company that advises you and recognizes that such encouragement is beneficial in mitigating risk and enhancing safety, and one which is capable of imparting technical expertise rather than visualizing and certifying standard observations.

It would therefore be prudent to understand that should concerned interests fail to comply with the requirements of warranty, and let the spread depart without a Certificate of Approval, H&M underwriters could likely place them in breach of their cover. Similarly, P&I insurance would likely be prejudiced as towage without warranty could be considered imprudent, depending on the actual circumstances.

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 Role of the Government Nautical Surveyor https://constellationms.com/role-of-the-government-nautical-surveyor/ Thu, 10 Jan 2019 06:32:25 +0000 https://constellationms.com/?p=7151 Continue reading  Role of the Government Nautical Surveyor]]> Role of the government nautical surveyor

Deputy Chief Nautical Surveyor, Danish Government Ship Inspection Service
Examination of new tonnage SHIPPING AND SHIPBUILDING are both industries which, due to their international character, to a great extent gave gained an advantage from the endeavors which have been brought forward by the international organizations such as IMO and ILO in preparing accepted standards for the construction, equipment and operation of ships.

It is a general obligation of contracting governments to undertake that all laws and regulations, etc., necessary for the effective implementation of conventions are promulgated. The ultimate aim is that a ship, from a safety point of view, is fit for the service for which it is intended; from a social point of view, offers healthy working and living conditions; and does not present any threat of harm to the marine environment.
The basis for the implementation of internationally agreed conventions on safety of ships in Denmark is the Safety of Ships, etc, Act. In pursuance of this Act, the Ministry of Industry has issued an order which authorizes the director of the Danish Government Ships Inspection Service to stipulate technical regulations on the construction and equipment of ships.

When the regulations contained in the annexes to IMO conventions have to be adapted to national legislation, it is found that even if the relevant sub-committee, when drafting, has endeavored to be as detailed as possible, the phrase ‘to the satisfaction of the Administration’ appears from time to time. This is quite natural in a forum where so many countries have to come to a compromise. In the Danish administration it has, in these instances, been found necessary and appropriate to complement the convention text with the national interpretations printed in italics.
In the process of adapting the international standards to national legislation it is considered of great importance to have close contact with all relevant parts of the industry and organizations. Having finalized and implemented the subsidiary part of the legislation, the provisions of the Safety of Ships, etc., Act are operational.
Documentation It should be noted that in addition to the preparation of national standards (adaptation of international standards), all the appropriate documentation required needs to be prepared and available to all concerned at the same time as the legislation enters into force. In this connection it is worth mentioning that a minor thing such as a list of material and equipment approved for use on board (Danish) ships very much facilitates the work of the industry as well as the administration.
The subsidiary legislation should contain provisions according to which the ship-owner or yard at the earliest possible stage has to submit to the administration all information, drawings and plans, necessary for the administration to carry out plan approval.
In practice, this obligation for the owner/yard requires that the administration at the request of the owner/yard submits an ‘information and drawing list’ for the size and type of ship in question. Leaving it to the discretion of the yard/owner to submit the relevant drawings, the administration may either receive drawings which are insufficient to form the basis for preapproval or the administration may receive such an amount of ‘paper’ that vital details may be ignored.
Nautical surveys
During the monitoring of a new building as well as during the process of plan approval those parts of the ship which naturally fall within the scope of work to be done by the Nautical Surveyor are mainly: lifesaving appliances, shipborne navigational equipment (including radar and ARPA); lights, shapes, means of making sound signals and distress signals; and fire-extinguishing appliances on deck. As far as radar and ARPA are concerned, it may in some administrations be radio surveyors or employees from the tele-administrations who deal with that part of the equipment, since the radar formally ‘belongs’ to the Safety Radio Certificate. However, the conference on the revision of Solas and the Load Lines Convention will probably, with the revision of Chapter I of Solas, result in the radar being transferred’ to the Safety Equipment Certificate.
Lifesaving appliances
Only a few parts of the traditional equipment which is required on board are as closely connected to the safety of the crew and passengers as are the lifesaving appliances. They are the last resort, when the requirements of all other parts of the ship have proved insufficient to support the view of the ship being the best lifeboat. A systematic approach to safeguard human lives depends upon: technology (the rules), personnel (the crew); and procedures (periodical surveys). It is in the interaction of these elements the causes of accidents have to be found. Safety is achieved by establishing some ‘defense lines’ against envisaged hazards. As the first line of defense, one may consider proper design and technology which requires adequate rules. As the second line of defense one may consider in-service training, muster and drills, carried out by the crew. And as the third line of defense one may consider the
Periodical surveys which are carried out, after it has been ascertained that the rules of construction, etc., are complied with. Safety improvements may, according to the circumstances, be obtained by adequate change in the three elements. By changing the order, certain effects will occur in the other elements. However, they must all three be complied with to achieve the ultimate aim.
LSA rules
Following the tacit acceptance procedure which applies to the Solas Convention, except Chapter I, the revised requirements with respect to lifesaving appliances apply to ships the keels of which were laid or which were at a similar stage of construction on or after July 1986. Although the revised Chapter III has been in force only for a short period, it is possible to comment, at least in general, on major parts of the revised LSA requirements.
Basic philosophy
The basic philosophy and proposed layout for the revised Chapter III were described by the Maritime Safety Committee at its 30th session as follows:
1. The main objective of Chapter III is that of providing adequate lifesaving systems at sea. In order to achieve this it is desirable to define the types of casualties which should be considered important, both with regard to severity and the frequency with which they occur.
2. Consequently, as a background material for the priorities which have to be given with regard to requirements for a lifesaving system, casualty statistics qualifying ship and environmental conditions should be available. If not, at least a good knowledge of predominant ship casualties must be available. 3. On this basis general functional requirements and objectives for a lifesaving system should be established. These should be qualitative requirements regardless of ship type or type of equipment, and be present in Part B or Chapter III.
4. The functional requirements should then be considered for different ship types, sizes and trades, etc., whichever characteristics are of importance for a translation of requirements into functional criteria. Such criteria should form Part C of Chapter III, forming the qualitative basis toward which lifesaving equipment should be designed. These criteria thus define the standards for lifesaving equipment dependent on its utilization.
5. These functional criteria can normally not be incorporated in one appliance only, without causing too many compromises. It may therefore be necessary to equip a ship with different types of lifesaving appliances which together forma lifesaving system in compliance with the criteria. Part D of Chapter III should therefore contain the detailed definition of various appliances and the specific requirements both with regard to the appliance itself and to possible special arrangements or design on board the ships. This means that the requirements for a lifesaving appliance may vary with ship type, etc. 6. Such a layout of Chapter III should accommodate new designs, ensuring that these are evaluated as pertinent to their actual use on board a vessel.
Improvements
The improvements in the revised requirements can mainly be divided into four parts: the new equipment which provides seafarers with an increased probability of survival; procedures for standardization of requirements, provision for the acceptance of novel appliances; and crew training, muster and drills.
New equipment
Cargo ships of 85m in length and above shall be fitted with totally enclosed lifeboats. The administration may, however, permit cargo ships (except oil tankers chemical tankers and gas carriers) operating under favorable climatic conditions and in suitable areas, to carry self-righting partially enclosed lifeboats, provided the limits of the trade area are specified in the Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. Passenger ships shall be fitted with either partially enclosed lifeboats, self-righting partially enclosed life-boats or totally enclosed lifeboats. Chemical tankers and gas carriers carrying cargoes emitting toxic vapors or gases shall be fitted with lifeboats with a self-contained air support system. Tankers (oil, chemical and gas) carrying cargoes having a flashpoint not exceeding 60°C (closed cup test) shall be fitted with fire-protected lifeboats also having a self-contained air support system. Passenger ships of 500 gt and over shall carry at least one rescue boat on each side of the ship. Cargo ships and passenger ships of less than 500 gt shall carry at least one rescue boat. Embarkation shall be with the lifeboat in the stowed position on cargo ships. Immersion suits and thermal protective aids shall be carried.
Enclosed lifeboats
Totally enclosed lifeboats offer far greater protection than the open ones. Many, if not the majority of, deaths at sea have been caused by exposure, and for this reason enclosed lifeboats are a great step forward. They do, however, require information to be given by surveyors to crew members about the importance of wearing safety belts and having all hatches closed, if the boat is to retain its self-righting capability. That seasickness is more likely to occur is just considered as an unpleasant experience compared to exposure.
Compared with open lifeboats, which for many years to come will still be found on board tankers, the requirements as to the new lifeboats, which have to be fitted aboard chemical tankers and gas carriers (self-contained air support system) and oil tankers, etc., carrying cargoes having a flashpoint not exceeding 60°C (fire-protected), constitute nothing less than a revolution.
That the revised requirements ended up with the possibility of cargo ships (except oil tankers, chemical tankers and gas carriers) operating under favorable conditions being fitted with partially enclosed lifeboats, seems to be one of the rare instances at IMO where the need for obtaining a compromise has led to a solution for which the practical justification seems hard to find.
Standardization
The amount of detail in the revised Chapter III is much greater than in the previous version. That it should be possible to achieve a higher degree of standardization between the national regulations of different administrations. Besides, the revised chapter contains a provision requiring administrations, before giving approval to lifesaving appliances and arrangements, to ensure that they are tested in accordance with the IMO recommendations. The Recommendation on Testing of Lifesaving Appliances (res.A521 (13)) has thereby been made mandatory. The probability exists that the reciprocal acceptance of appliances in the future will be facilitated between administrations. This is of importance not only to those manufacturing and selling lifesaving appliances, but also upon transfer of a tip from one flag to another.
Acceptance of novel appliances
Even if the revised chapter contains a provision as to the approval of novel lifesaving appliances or arrangements, it is doubtful whether any ship-owner or manufacturer will find it tempting to embark on major projects of that kind. First, some of the already existing arrangements, which with regard to the ‘old’ chapter III would be considered as novel, have been included in the revised chapter—e.g., free fall lifeboats. Second, the costs involved in designing, manufacturing and testing a novel device, without any guarantee as to the economic prospects, will inevitably cause some reluctance on the part of manufacturers.
Drills
With the new and sophisticated equipment, proper musters and drills have become even more vital, besides which the drastic reduction in manning which has been seen worldwide in recent years leaves no room for any hands to be idle when an emergency threatens.
It should therefore be noted, that the requirements regarding muster list and emergency instructions, operating instructions, manning of survival craft and supervision, abandon ship training and drills, operational readiness, maintenance and inspections, and drills (passenger ships) apply also to existing ships, without a period of grace.

Surveys and safety certificates
With the entry into force of the Solas Protocol/78 on 1 May, 1981, the provisions concerning inspections and surveys were tightened up. It should be mentioned that additional inspections/surveys were required and nomination of surveyors or recognized organizations to conduct surveys and inspections can only be done if they also are empowered to require repairs to a ship, and carry out inspections and surveys if requested by the appropriate authorities of a port State.
The present Solas 74/78 requirements concerning survey and certificates have been in force for quite some years now, and it seems as if most of the problems arising from the complexity of the system have been overcome by both administrations and ship-owners. However, the variation of certification and survey intervals in different IMO conventions is
Inconvenient for both administrations and ship-owners. As a consequence a harmonized system of surveys and certification was planned in 1988, including Solas 74/78, the Load Line Convention, 1966, and Marpol 73/78, but will not enter into force before 1 February 1992 at the earliest.
Cargo ship safety equipment certificate
According to the provisions of Solas 74/78 the inspection and survey of ships in relation to the convention may be entrusted to surveyors nominated for the purpose or to recognized organizations’. In the implementation of the Solas 74/78 requirements by national Danish legislation it has been decided that the initial survey as to safety equipment has to be carried out by surveyors from the administration. This applies also to ships built abroad. On completion of the survey a Cargo Ship Safety Certificate is issued.
Besides lifesaving appliances, those parts of the ship and its equipment which inter alia are dealt with by the nautical surveyor are shipborne navigational equipment and lights, shapes and means of making sound, and distress signals.
Shipborne navigational equipment
Upon the entry into force of the 1981 amendments to Solas 74 the requirements as to navigational equipment were increased significantly; they cover such items as:
• Gyro and magnetic compasses.
• Radar installations.
• Automatic radar plotting aids.
• Echo-sounders.
• Devices to indicate speed and distance (log).
• Rudder angle indicators.
• Propeller revolution indicators.
• Rate-of-turn indicators.
The requirement that the equipment has to be type approved by the administration requires resources which only a few administrations have available. Having overcome the problems in connection with the type approval, the field surveyor still has to make sure that the installation of the equipment has been carried out satisfactorily. This comprehensive job can hardly be carried out without the surveyor being present during a sea trial. As an example reference could be made to the performance standards for automatic pilots (resolution A.342 (IX),) where it is prescribed:
2 General
2.1. Within limits related to a ship’s maneuverability the automatic pilot, in conjunction with its source of heading information, should enable a ship to keep a preset course with minimum operation of the ship’s steering gear.
2.2. The automatic pilot equipment should be capable of adapting to different steering characteristics of the ship under various weather and loading conditions, and provide reliable operation under prevailing environmental and normal operational conditions.
The ability of the automatic pilot to comply with para. 2 is dependent on the hull, rudder, propeller and the ship’s horsepower, and cannot be a part of the type approval, since these factors differ from ship to ship. A verification of compliance with the
Performance standards should consequently require a sea trial, even under different wind and sea conditions.
Lights, shapes and sound signals
The exemptions given during a nine year period in Reg. 38 of the International Convention for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 expired on 14 July 1986.
From that date where applicable the vertical and horizontal positioning and spacing of lights have to be in accordance with Annex I and the technical details of sound signal appliances have to comply with Annex III of Colreg 72.
Certificates
Being satisfied that all applicable requirements are complied with, the surveyor can issue a Cargo Ship Safety Certificate. During the survey, close cooperation should exist with surveyors of other categories, mainly the engine surveyor in order to ensure that the requirements as to the ship’s fire-fighting capability are met.
Periodic Surveys
Administrations have to a great extent delegated the statutory surveys (renewal), mandatory annual surveys and intermediate surveys of tankers ten years of age and over to classification societies. The concept of unscheduled inspections is not being practiced. It should be noted that following the 14th Assembly, revised guidelines on surveys required by the 1978 Solas protocol, the International Bulk Chemical Code, and the International Gas Carrier Code have been issued.
It should be emphasized that, regardless of the work being delegated, the administration in every case shall fully guarantee the completeness and efficiency of the inspection and survey, and shall undertake to ensure the necessary arrangements to satisfy this obligation.
Port State inspections
Looking back to search for the causes leading to international and regional action on substandard ships, it is plain that there were several roots from which it all began. It was in particular following the Amoco Cadiz casualty that the European countries realized that preventive action against substandard ships would have to be given priority. It had become a political matter.
The term ‘substandard ship’ has been used in many instances in a way giving rise to misunderstanding and misinterpretation. In this context, reference is made to section 3 of IMO Resolution A. 466 (XII), to Article 4 of ILO Convention No. 147 and section 3.7. of the Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control, 1982.
Since the official definitions of a sub-standard ship are given in very general terms, a few examples to illustrate circumstances that will inevitably qualify a ship as ‘substandard’ should be mentioned:
• Launching of life boats not possible due to absence of greasing, accumulation of paint and failure to carry out regular drills.
• Emergency fire pump inoperative.
• A ship staying in a Scandinavian port during the winter season is found to have no accommodation heating system.
Reasons for substandard ships
No introduction into the complex problem of sub-standard ships would be complete unless it includes the reasons behind the phenomenon. Without ranking such reasons, and without pretending to draw up a complete list of them, it is safe to say that the underlying reasons include the following:
• (Old) age of the ship.
• Lacking (or no) operational control by the ship owning company.
• Lacking (or no) training of officers and/or crew.
• Lacking (or no) supervision on part of the flag State.
Responsibility
Varied are the reasons for substandard ships, and so are the responsibilities for combating the phenomenon. The responsibility rests mainly with:
a) The international organizations such as IMO and ILO, whose task includes the preparation and adoption of relevant safety standards.
b) The flag State which has the primary responsibility for the effective implementation of the standards embodied in the relevant conventions.
c) The ship-owner-he must ensure the safe and seaworthy condition of his ship as well as her safe manning (it is provided that the ship’s flag State has transformed into national law the provisions of the relevant conventions).
d) The master, who bears the full responsibility for the observance aboard his ship of operational and safety standards.
e) Every crew member-last but not least.
The following instruments include the right and the obligation for the port State to verify that foreign ships and their crew comply with the relevant standards: ILO No. 147, Article 4; Solas 74/78, Chapter I, Reg. 19; STCW, 1978, Article X; Marpol 73/78, Article 5; and ILLC, 1966, Article 21.
The subject of port State inspections is covered in the chapter by Captain R. L. Newbury on page 51.
Incidents and investigations
The obligation for administrations to conduct an investigation after any serious marine casualty or incident is included in the following conventions: Solas 74/78, Chapter I, Regulation 21; Marpol 73/78, Article 6; LLC, 1966, Article 23; and ILO No 147, Article 2 (g). Further, the Memorandum of Under-standing on Port Stale Control in Section 5 imposes the obligation for the participating administrations to co-operate in securing evidence relating to suspected violations of the requirements on operational matters of Rule 10 of Colreg and Marpol 73/78.
As far as Marpol 73/78 and the Memorandum are concerned the investigation may also be carried out with respect to foreign ships. However, the legal action towards the ship/master, according to the above conventions, has to be taken by the flag administration.

Apart from the interest of the flag State to prosecute suspected violations of national legislation, investigations are additionally conducted to supply the organization with all pertinent information concerning the findings of such investigations in order that they are able to determine possible changes in the conventions. Due to the experience gained during many years at sea as mate and possibly as master, the contribution of the nautical surveyor in connection with investigations of marine casualties and operational violations is invaluable.
Health and safety
The idea of health and safety taken in general is a very comprehensive one and might in fact form the basis of a complete syllabus. The following brief reference to the topics is not thought to be complete and will with respect to safety be limited to operational safety and as to health to medical care and examination.
A precondition for obtaining safe working conditions aboard a ship, as well as ashore, is all groups and individual members of the crew taking an active part in the prevention of occupational hazards. The primary responsibility rests with the master, chief engineer and the senior officers. However, full support from all crew members can be expected only if a mandatory system is set up through which appointed members of the crew can inform the master, etc., about all minor and major hazards, to which they feel exposed, without corrective action has been taken.
Records of meetings in this committee for accident prevention should be kept in the ship’s file. During inspections the surveyor should go through the records and consult crew members representing the
Various categories of the crew, in order to ensure that requests regarding hazards that may exist in their daily work aboard the ship have been taken appropriate care of. All complaints regarding conditions on board should be investigated thoroughly and action taken as deemed necessary by the circumstances. It is impracticable to mention all the items to which attention should be paid. As examples the following items fall within the scope of the nautical surveyor:
• Safe means of access to the ship.
• Safety measures on and below deck.
• Loading and unloading equipment.
• Dangerous cargo and ballast.
• Personal protective equipment for seafarers.
If deficiencies or operational circumstances give rise to a serious hazard to the safety or health of persons on board, the surveyor shall take appropriate action to remove the hazard by requiring rectification of the deficiency or prohibiting continuation of the operation. In Annex 1 to the Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control, comprehensive guidelines have been given to the surveyors on this issue when carrying out port State control. These guidelines are based on ILO Convention No. 134 on Prevention of Accidents.
Medical care and examination
Medical certificates are required for persons who are employed in any capacity on board a ship. In ILO Convention No. 73 on the Medical Examination of Seafarers, small ships as well as certain categories of seafarers are exempted from the provisions. In addition, being a statement as to the general health of the seafarer, the certificate shall attest that the person, concerned is fit by reason of hearing and sight. For persons to carry out deck watch keeping duties, it shall

constellation marine services table
Attest that the colour vision is satisfactory. The certificate shall not be older than two years and as regards colour vision not older titan six years from the date of issue.
Annex 1 to the Memorandum also includes detailed guidelines on this topic to be followed by the surveyor in connection with port State control. These guidelines could, as well as those previously mentioned on occupational safety, be adopted when carrying out flag State control.
ILO Conventions No. 73 and No. 134 are two of the conventions under the umbrella of ILO No. 14-7
On Minimum Standards for on Minimum Standards for Merchant Shipping, which is one of the major—if not the most important—of the maritime conventions adopted by the International Labour organization.
Considering the authority which Iies in the hands of a surveyor, it should be evident that one of his first duties, when boarding a ship, is to report to the master or his representative. Without being requested he should present evidence that he is duly authorized by the administration to carry out the survey and investigation required by him.

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Damaged cargo survey, jointly done on without prejudice basis https://constellationms.com/damaged-cargo-survey-jointly-done-on-without-prejudice-basis/ Wed, 29 Aug 2018 16:31:17 +0000 http://jobs30.com/?p=6904 Continue reading Damaged cargo survey, jointly done on without prejudice basis]]> As per our principal’s instructions, a joint survey had to be conducted by Constellation Marine’s engineer surveyor on behalf of the carrier to assess the nature, cause and extent of damage to one air conditioning unit which was reportedly received in a damaged condition in a 40-foot container and stored at the consignee’s warehouse. A formal notification was sent by the cargo’s underwriter surveyor to the carriers via email. This in turn led to Constellation Marine Services getting appointed for the joint survey.

At 1400 hours on 27 July 2015, an engineer surveyor from Constellation Marine Services acting on behalf of the carrier attended the joint survey to investigate the nature, cause and extent of damage to the air conditioning unit which was already unpacked from the 40-foot container and placed at the consignee’s construction site in Dubai, UAE. Upon investigation by our engineer surveyor, it was found that the bottom horizontal member of the frame was detached from its vertical members, which can be seen in the images displayed below (Image 1 and 2). In Addition, the base beading on the right-hand corner of the 2nd sections rear side of the main body was damaged (Image 3). However, the rest of the unit was satisfactory, and no other damage was reported and/or visibly sighted.Cargo damage Joint Survey

Upon Constellation Marine Service’s surveyor arrival at the site where the damaged unit was placed, it was found that out of the 4 sections of the main unit, the 2nd section panel door frame at the rear end was damaged at the bottom from 2 points.

The container in which the unit arrived was not presented to our engineer surveyor for external and internal inspection and hence the damage to the container if any could not be determined. The mariner in which the air handling units were originally stowed and secured within the container was not known to the engineer surveyor as the units were unpacked from the container prior to our attendance for the survey.

Based on the inspection conducted by the engineer surveyor, the damage appeared to be contact damage possibly caused by mishandling of the unit either while loading the shipment into the container or during unloading it from the container.

Since the container in which the units were shipped were not available for our inspection. It was not possible to say whether the container under sent any impact during discharge/loading  operation on board the vessel loading to damage to the contents therein.

Damaged cargo survey

Read our Related blog on Inspection of cargo tanks for potential oil cargo discrepancy

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Port captain & Cargo Expedition at Salalah ,Oman https://constellationms.com/port-captain-cargo-expedition-at-salalah-oman/ Wed, 29 Aug 2018 16:12:56 +0000 http://jobs30.com/?p=6899 Continue reading Port captain & Cargo Expedition at Salalah ,Oman]]> Recently we as Independent Marine Consultants received a nomination from one of our overseas Principals (Major Steel Company) to carry out a Port Captaincy & Cargo Expedition to load 77,000 MT of Limestone in Bulk, in regards to cargo stowage, cargo availability, cargo sequence, minimum stoppages and maximum intake with faster & safer outturn.

Our Senior Port Captain contacted the local agents to enter the Port in order to attend on board the vessel the Port Captaincy assignment.

OUR ATTENDANCE

Our Port Captain boarded the vessel & met the Master, Chief Officer and Shippers representative and explained the purpose of our visit, a detailed discussion was held with regards to cargo stowage, cargo availability, cargo sequence, minimum stoppages and maximum intake with faster & safer outturn.

Following conscripts of our Marine surveyors recommendations/remarks

CARGO STOWAGE PLAN:

  1. Initial stowage plan, loading plan/sequence provided by the vessel was verified in detail, taking into all above mentioned aspects. Stability parameters at all stages of the loading was also verified.
  2. On our Port Captain recommendation it was decided that the stowage plan would not be the final plan but after every 24 hours of loading the plan would be amended so as to get maximum intake with faster, safer outturn.
  3. As per discussion with the shipper’s representative we were advised that as per Port regulations vessels loading more than 55,000 MT of cargo should employ/deploy 1 shore crane. Hence it was decided that 1 shore crane will be used at all times and 3 ships cranes will be used, for safety reasons wherever the shore crane is located the adjacent ship crane will not be used.
  4. Taking the above regulation into consideration, the stowage plan was continuously amended so as to have all cranes working till final stage of loading (trimming).
  5. We as Port Captain requested the shipper to ensure that cargo should be available at all times on the jetty, so as not to have any delays. We recommended that additional trucks be deployed for the same.

CARGO HOLDS:

  1. We visually inspected the cargo holds and noted the holds to be have slight to moderate rust on the bulkheads, tank top was covered with rust stains. Additionally, we were informed by the Master that cargo holds had been washed with sea water using high pressure sea water (Combi-gun), bilges were clean. Cargo holds had been inspected by the shipper’s representative & passed to load cargo of Limestone.

CARGO CRANES:

  1. Our Port Captain inspected the cargo cranes, loose gears & cargo grabs. Cranes were noted to be in satisfactory working condition. Wires & sheaves were noted to be greased. During cargo operations we carried out discussions with the operators regarding any defects with the cranes, which we were told was not present.
  2. Our Port Captain recommended that the ship’s crew carry out any required maintenance, check oil levels & carry out greasing of all lifting gears during stevedore break hours so as to reduce chances of any break downs.
  3. Our Port Captain inspected the cargo cranes, loose gears & cargo grabs. Cranes were noted to be in satisfactory working condition. Wires & sheaves were noted to be greased. During cargo operations we carried out discussions with the shore crane operators regarding any defects with the cranes, which we were told was not present.

CARGO GRABS:

  1. Cargo grabs were inspected by our Port Captain same noted to be adequately greased but covered in moderate rust
  2. The grabs were noted with no serial numbers (manufacture’s plating) which could help it be compared with the test certificate. Only ships identification marking was noted.
  3. Our Port Captain noted that the cranes were Class certified but noted that the cargo grabs were not Class certified. Grabs were subjected to load test on the request of the owners but not approved by any Classification society.

MOORINGS:

  1. Our Port Captain recommended that the Master request the Port for Anti-surge lines, which were provided & the same was attached to the forward & aft springs.
  2. Our Port Captain recommended and ensured that the greasing was carried out at all times on the mooring ropes at the fairleads, rollers, panama leads & shore bollards so as to reduce the effects of chaffing due to surging. Additionally some extra protection in the way of old mooring ropes & canvas be used.
  3. Additionally our Port Captain advised the Master to have additional mooring lines standby incase of any emergencies.
  4. Our Port Captain instructed that ship’s crew post a crew member forward & aft during changes in tide to reduce chances of any damages to the ropes.

TOTAL PORT STAY : 5 days 15 hrs 28 mins (135.5 hours)
TOTAL CARGO TIME : 5 days 8 hrs 10 mins (128.8 hours)
AVG. LOADING RATE : 14,348 MT/Day

SUMMARY OF DELAYS:

Port Captain & Cargo Expedition at Salalah,Oman1

PREDOMINANT CAUSES FOR DELAYS:
SHIP OWNERS DELAY: Crane breakdown.
PORT DELAY : Transfer of shore crane & transfer of grab.
SHIPPERS DELAY : Awaiting cargo on the jetty.

CONCLUSION:
Loading operations completed at the stipulated time as advised by the port. No additional costs incurred for the same. All in all a successful loading operation carried out.

Port Captain & Cargo Expedition at Salalah,Oman2

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Joint survey for damage of one air conditioning machine unstuffed from 40’ foot container https://constellationms.com/joint-survey-for-damage-of-one-air-conditioning-machine-unstuffed-from-40-foot-container/ Wed, 29 Aug 2018 15:54:44 +0000 http://jobs30.com/?p=6897 Continue reading Joint survey for damage of one air conditioning machine unstuffed from 40’ foot container]]> As per our principal’s instructions, a joint survey had to be undertaken by Constellation Marine Engineer Surveyor on behalf of the carriers to assess the nature, cause and extent of damage to an air conditioning machine which was reportedly received in a damaged condition in 40’ container and stored at the consignee’s warehouse. A formal notification by email was sent by the Cargo Underwriter’s Surveyor to the Carriers who in turn appointed Constellation Marine Services for the joint survey.

The diverse experience of Constellations staff consisting of Chartered Engineers, Naval Architects and Master Mariners, and combination of expertise permits Constellation to offer a full range of vessel attendance services irrespective of the commodity shipped or the vessel type.

For this particular attendance, the cargo to be shipped was 1263 ductile iron pipes of 2.2 meters diameter each, and of a length 5 meters and 6.2 meters each, constructed with an extended socket at one end.

Because of the nature of construction of the pipes, its length of sea passage, its commercial value and end user requirements, the loading, dunnaging, lashing and chocking requirements were to exact specifications, with very little or no leeway provided in its stowage.

Constellation attendance for the cargo loading project was undertaken by Capt. Vispy Dadimaster and Engineer Fahad Ansari, who remained on board throughout the loading process.

The pre stowage plan prepared was to have the pipes loaded in tiers, 9 high for the center stack, and 6 high on the end stacks, due to the restriction of the extended coamings forward and aft of each hatch.

The dunnage requirements and its placement was extremely critical, and given the dimension of the hold and the length of the pipes, there was no room for errors in measurement which could lead to stack clearances not being maintained. In view of the same, our cargo superintendents themselves drew up plans for dunnage laying in each hold, and were present themselves to ensure the correct distances were maintained.

There was a high level of coordination required between all parties, the shipper, the port stevedores, and port appointed carpenters, to ensure that the loading progressed smoothly and to the extent, uninterrupted.

In view of the extremely high amount of intermediate and side chocking and dunnaging required, it was imperative that there was a steady flow of dunnage separation available to keep up with the flow of pipes arriving at the ships rails for loading. This was successfully coordinated with the ships agents and the port stevedores, to ensure the least idle time during the process.

In addition to the loading supervision, a continuous watch and record was maintained for the condition of the pipes, especially for its inner surface cement coating, and all exceptions were noted and provided to the shipper timely.

Our cargo superintendents maintained continuous vigil on the critical stack clearances during the loading process, and on the corner chocking to ensure the stow remained compact and with no possibilities of shifting during the sea passage.

As the stack tiers increased upwards, there was considerable difficulty observed in loading the pipes under the extended coamings, and our cargo superintendents were at hand to provide options and changes in stow plan, to the full satisfaction of the shipper and the Master of the vessel.

Due to the large diameter of the individual pipes and the stack weight on the lower pipes very close to the maximum permissible restrictions, our cargo superintendents assisted the shippers in continuous measurement of the pipes ovality during the loading process, to ensure that they remained within the allowable tolerances.

Post completion of the loading, the cargo stow was found compact, in line with the specified requirements and lashed to the complete satisfaction of the ships command.

At constellation Marine surveyor, we are committed to offer our clients bespoke solutions and services to any requirement, through its propriety offices located across the UAE, and its knowledge and expertise of its staff which is second to none.

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Precautions Take during the Bunkering Operation https://constellationms.com/precautions-take-during-the-bunkering-operation/ https://constellationms.com/precautions-take-during-the-bunkering-operation/#comments Mon, 26 Mar 2018 21:37:25 +0000 http://jobs30.com//?p=1 Continue reading Precautions Take during the Bunkering Operation]]> BUNKER/BUNKERING

What Does the Word “Bunker” and Bunkering?

In the shipping industry, the word bunker is used for fuel and lube oils, which are stored on a ship and used for machinery operation only. If a vessel is carrying marine fuel or lube oil to discharge it to another port, it will not be called “bunker”. If the vessel or truck is carrying it to transfer to another ship for using in its machinery, it will be termed as “bunker” and the operation performed to transport the oil is known as “bunkering”

Types of Bunker Fuel:

When the ship receives any kind of oil for using it in its machinery it is called a bunker fuel or bunker oil. Following are different types of bunkers which are supplied to a commercial or passenger vessel:

• Heavy fuel oil bunker
• Diesel oil bunker
• Marine Gas oil bunker
• Lube oil bunker

Precautions Take during the Bunkering Operation (The Bunkering Check-List)

• Prior To Commencing the Operation, All Pre-Loading Checks Should Be Carried Out and Communication Systems Verified as Working
• The Loading Rate Should Be Checked Regularly.
• When Changing Over from One Tank to Another, Care Should Be Taken to Ensure That an Excessive Back Pressure Is Not Put on The Hose or Loading Lines.
• When Topping-Off Tanks, The Loading Rate Should Be Decreased to Reduce the Possibility of Air Locks in The Tank Causing Mist Carry Over Through the Vents, And to Minimize the Risk of The Supplier Not Stopping Quickly Enough.
• On Completion of Bunkering, All Hoses and Lines Should Be Drained to The Tank or If Applicable,
• Back to the Barge, Prior To Disconnection. The Practice of Blowing Lines with Air into Bunker Tanks Is A Common One But Has A High Risk of Causing A Spillage Unless the Tank Is Only Part
Full and Has Sufficient Ullage on Completion of Bunkering.

Before Bunkering collect information and inspection

1. before boarding the Vessel drought and trim to be recorded ( Forward and Aft)

 

 vessel draft mark

2. confirm with Chief engineer calculate and check which bunker oil tanks are to be filled after he/she receives confirmation from the shore office about the amount of fuel to be accepted.
3. It might be required to empty some tanks and transfer the oil from one tank to other. This is required to prevent mixing of two oils and prevent incompatibility between the previous oil and the new oil.
4. The sounding of other fuel storage tank (not be used in bunkering operation) should also be taken to keep a record of fuel already present on board. This will help the ship’s officer in case any valve is leaking, and the bunker oil is being transferred to the unwanted tank.
5. We have to discuss with Chief engineer that will take part in the bunkering process, and they should be explained about the following: –
• Which tanks are to be filled
• Sequence order of tanks to be filled
• How much bunker oil is to be taken
6. Sounding is taken before bunkering and record is made

7. Need to be filled checklist nothing is missed
8. All deck scuppers and save all trays are plugged
9. An overflow tank is provided in the engine room which is connected to the bunker tank and bunker line. Ensure the overflow tank is kept empty to transfer excess fuel from the bunker tanks
10. Adequate lighting at the bunker and sounding position are to be provided
11. No smoking notice should be positioned near the bunkering station
12. Onboard communication, signs, and signals to stop the operation between the people involved in bunkering are to be understood by all the crew involved in the operation.
13. Opposite side bunker manifold valves are closed and appropriately blanked
14. When bunker ship or barge is secured to the ship side, the person in charge on the barge is also explained about the bunker plan

15. Bunker supplier’s paperwork is checked for the oil’s grade and the density if they are as per the specification
16. Bunker barge drought and trim to be recorded
17. Bunker barge sounding is taken before bunkering and record is made
18. The pumping rate of the bunker fuel is agreed with the bunker barge/ bunker truck
19. The hose is then connected to the manifold. The condition of the hose must be checked properly by the ship staff and if it is not satisfactory, same to be notified to the chief engineer
20. Most of the bunker supplier send their crew to connect the bunker oil pipeline coming from bunker ship/ barge. The ship staff must recheck the flange connection to eliminate the doubt of any leakage
21. Once the connection is made, the chief engineer will ensure all the line valves which will lead the bunker fuel to the selected bunker tanks are open, keeping the main manifold valve shut
22. Proper communication between the barge and the ship is to be established
23. Sign and signals are to be followed as discussed in case of communication during an emergency
24. Most bunkering facilities (ship/ barge/ terminal/ truck etc.) provide an emergency stop switch which controls the bunkering supply pump. Ensure to check its working before commencing the operation
25. Once all the checks are done, the manifold valve is open for bunkering

26. Upon completion of bunkering, need to gauged the bunker tanks of Receiving vessel ” in conjunction with the Chief Engineer to ascertain the quantity of Oil received on board
27. Also board the bunker vessel and gauged/inspected the cargo tanks on board in order to ascertain the quantity of Oil discharged and observed that the quantity of Oil was discharged from the nominated Tanks. The remaining cargo tanks were found to be same co

After bunkering all parties agree need to sin all documents and as per bunker barge discharge quantity will mention in BDN

 

ndition as before bunkering.

Upon completion of bunkering subsequently after the documentation on board, the attending surveyor disembarked from the vessel M.V. “**********” at 0920 hours on 12th April 2017.

Mohammed Farooq
(Attending Surveyor)
For M/S. Constellation Marine Services

Read our related blog about Bunkering and bunker Surveys.

Reach us for Bunkering and bunker Surveys

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Port Captaincy & Oversized Cargo Shipping https://constellationms.com/port-captaincy-oversized-cargo-shipping/ Sun, 18 Feb 2018 09:49:46 +0000 http://horse.themestek.com/?p=140

Port Captaincy & Oversized Cargo Shipping

Constellation Marine services are pleased to announce the successful completion of a Port Captaincy evolution for loading a length of 7.5 kilometers of Ductile Iron cement coated pipe on board a bulk carrier in Abu Dhabi.

With over a 1000+ port captaincy and supercargo services performed over the last 10 years, it came as no surprise that Constellation Marine services were chosen over the multitude of survey companies in the UAE for this particular attendance.


The diverse experience of Constellations staff consisting of Chartered Engineers, Naval Architects and Master Mariners, and combination of expertise permits Constellation to offer a full range of vessel attendance services irrespective of the commodity shipped or the vessel type.

For this particular attendance, the cargo to be shipped was 1263 ductile iron pipes of 2.2 meters diameter each, and of a length 5 meters and 6.2 meters each, constructed with an extended socket at one end.

Because of the nature of construction of the pipes, its length of sea passage, its commercial value and end user requirements, the loading, dunnaging, lashing and chocking requirements were to exact specifications, with very little or no leeway provided in its stowage.

Constellation attendance for the cargo loading project was undertaken by Capt. Vispy Dadimaster and Engineer Fahad Ansari, who remained on board throughout the loading process.

The pre stowage plan prepared was to have the pipes loaded in tiers, 9 high for the center stack, and 6 high on the end stacks, due to the restriction of the extended coamings forward and aft of each hatch.

The dunnage requirements and its placement was extremely critical, and given the dimension of the hold and the length of the pipes, there was no room for errors in measurement which could lead to stack clearances not being maintained. In view of the same, our cargo superintendents themselves drew up plans for dunnage laying in each hold, and were present themselves to ensure the correct distances were maintained.

There was a high level of coordination required between all parties, the shipper, the port stevedores, and port appointed carpenters, to ensure that the loading progressed smoothly and to the extent, uninterrupted.

In view of the extremely high amount of intermediate and side chocking and dunnaging required, it was imperative that there was a steady flow of dunnage separation available to keep up with the flow of pipes arriving at the ships rails for loading. This was successfully coordinated with the ships agents and the port stevedores, to ensure the least idle time during the process.

In addition to the loading supervision, a continuous watch and record was maintained for the condition of the pipes, especially for its inner surface cement coating, and all exceptions were noted and provided to the shipper timely.

Our cargo superintendents maintained continuous vigil on the critical stack clearances during the loading process, and on the corner chocking to ensure the stow remained compact and with no possibilities of shifting during the sea passage.

As the stack tiers increased upwards, there was considerable difficulty observed in loading the pipes under the extended coamings, and our cargo superintendents were at hand to provide options and changes in stow plan, to the full satisfaction of the shipper and the Master of the vessel.

Due to the large diameter of the individual pipes and the stack weight on the lower pipes very close to the maximum permissible restrictions, our cargo superintendents assisted the shippers in continuous measurement of the pipes ovality during the loading process, to ensure that they remained within the allowable tolerances.

Post completion of the loading, the cargo stow was found compact, in line with the specified requirements and lashed to the complete satisfaction of the ships command.

At constellation Marine surveyor, we are committed to offer our clients bespoke solutions and services to any requirement, through its propriety offices located across the UAE, and its knowledge and expertise of its staff which is second to none.

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Ship Main Engine Damage Survey https://constellationms.com/ship-main-engine-damage-survey/ Sun, 21 Jan 2018 10:43:28 +0000 http://horse.themestek.com/?p=1 SHIP MAIN ENGINE DAMAGE SURVEY CARRIED OUT BY ENGINEER SURVEYORS FROM CONSTELLATION MARINE SERVICES.

BACKGROUND

We, Constellation Marine Services (CMS) as independent ship and marine surveyors, often get instructions from our principals as Hull & Machinery underwriters to attend on board ships to carry out machinery damage surveys. Recently we got a nomination form one of our principals to carry out Main Engine damage survey on board a vessel and report on nature, cause and extent of damage to the Main Engine.

Our engineer surveyors upon receiving instruction for the survey contacted the concerned local Agents representing the Owners of the ship informing them on our appointment to attend a survey on board the subject vessel in relation to the Main Engine Failure and repairs planned by the vessel owners and requested them to advise us the berthing date/time of the vessel at the port.

CONSTELLATION ENGINEER SURVEYORS’S ATTENDANCE ON BOARD THE VESSEL.

Upon receiving information on berthing of the vessel from the vessel’s local Agents Constellation engineer surveyors boarded vessel immediately on berthing and met the Master and Chief Engineer to apprise them on our appointment to carry out the Main Engine Damage survey and related repairs to be planned.

With reference to our surveyor’s enquiry about the incident leading to damage to the engine Master informed that frequent damage to the Main Engine had occurred during the six-month period prior to the present planned repairs and had undergone repairs and replacement of some major parts including pistons and cylinders. The repairs on board was done by ship’s crew. Master added that the damage was mainly to the parts in cylinder units 1, 2 4 & 5.
Master further informed that the service technician from MAN Diesel & Turbo boarded the vessel at anchorage a week before for inspection of the main engine to find the root cause leading to high wear rate. A copy of his report was made available for the attending surveyors review.

As stated in the inspection report the technician during his attendance had carried out under piston space inspection where piston rings were broken. checked alpha lubricator for operation and timing and found satisfactory. Checked WATER MIST CATCHER from inspection door and found evidence that there have been high level of liquid (water) for some long time found Jacket water temp too low (down to 65 degree) and Chief Engineer informed regulating valve was not working. The report says that in general the liner surface and cylinder condition seems to have been affected by cold corrosion but by itself not explaining the very high wear rate (+2.8mm) M/E. is 7000 running hours only.

Random replica imprints had been collected by the technician for sending to do lab analysis as cat fines were suspected involved in the root cause. He recommended in his report that incase of cat fine contamination, all liners / pistons, crown, skirt, stuffing box, plunger /barrel and injectors will have to be exchanged + cleaning of HFO tanks and HFO purifier check.

Constellation Engineer surveyors requested the master to make available for review the engine room log book, Copy of Planned Maintenance System, Main Engine maintenance records, Manufacturer Service Manuel, Fuel oil Analysis report, Lube oil Analysis report, Bunker sample Analysis report.

Master advised the Ch. Engineer to provide the surveyors the required documents. There after the surveyors accompanied by the Ch. Engineer visited the engine room. The main engine noted to be MAN B&W make two strokes with five-cylinder units.

The Ch. Engineer made available all required documents for review by the surveyors. As informed by him the engine dismantling was to happen in a day or two. Accordingly we boarded the vessel to inspect the damaged parts of the engine.

MAIN ENGINE DISMANTLING PROCESS IN PROGRESS

NATURE OF DAMAGE

The damaged engine parts were inspected by us and following noted
S.NO. DESCRIPTION NATURE OF DAMAGE
1 PISTONS HIGH RATE OF WEAR& TEAR AND WITH CARBON DEPOSIT ALL OVER
2 PISTON RINGS SOME BROKEN, SOME MISSING DUE TO BROKEN PARTS BLOWN OF THROUGH THE EXHAUST UNIT AND TURBO UNIT
3 CYLINDER LINERS WITH DEEP SCORING AND SCRATCHES, HIGH RATE OF WEAR /TEAR.
4 PISTON RODS DEEP SCORING MARKS. WEAR/TEAR
5 CYLINDER COVER UNITS INTERNAL PARTS WITH HIGH WEAR& TEAR
6 FUEL PUMP WEAR& TEAR TO ELEMENTS&SEALS
7 PUIFIERS NEED OVERHALING

CAUSE CONSIDERATION

Constellation engineer surveyors verified all documents including fuel oil test reports, main engine maintenance records. It was mentioned earlier that MAN B&W technician had boarded the vessel at anchorage for inspection prior berthing of the vessel. Random replica imprints had been collected by the technician for sending to do lab analysis as cat fines were suspected involved in the root cause. On reviewing the analysis report it was confirmed that the fuel oil used by the vessel contained more catfines than allowed and were in larger in size. Catfines being abrasive in nature had caused high rate wear and tear consequential damage/breakage to the main engine parts resulting engine failure.

CONCLUSION

Constellation surveyors advised the Master not to use the fuel oil existing in the tanks. Accordingly, the fuel oil from the F O tanks was transferred to slop tanks and the tanks & lines were cleaned to receive fresh bunkers to be used in the engine after repair. The engine repairs completed in a month and refitted on board the vessel. New bunkers were received and used in the engine. After a trial test the vessel sailed to its destination port.

Prepared by Engr. K.D. Shenoy.

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independent marine survey https://constellationms.com/independent-marine-survey/ Fri, 29 Sep 2017 11:39:15 +0000 http://nutricorp.kwayythemes.com/?p=278 independent marine survey

-Why cheap shoe strings can’t be used as belts? A Case study why one should charge an appropriate fee for the scope of diligence required and risks involved during an independent Marine survey appointment.

Though the following account refers to a cargo hold condition survey, the lessons learnt by it for an independent marine surveyor apply as much to any condition or “fit for purpose” survey.


In 1985, a New Zealand company ordered a parcel of fertilizer, about 22,000 MT, at a cost and freight value of USD 4.2 million. The consignment was partly loaded on a year 1977 built bulk carrier, in Sweden, and the balance from Tampa, Florida.

An independent Marine survey company of worldwide repute, were appointed to certify the vessels holds as clean, dry and fit to load the fertilizer.

The vessel arrived Napier and was initially refused permission to discharge by the NZ government cargo inspectors on account of diseased Barley grain found in all five holds. Although the government authorities subsequently relented, they imposed a number of restrictions on the fertilizers sale within New Zealand.

Understandably, importers refused to accept receipt of the cargo due to these restrictions.

After several weeks, a buyer was found for the cargo in “as is” condition, the ship left Napier after two months to discharge the contaminated fertilizer to the buyer in Antwerp, Belgium.

The loss on the actual sale of the fertilizer amounted to a little under USD 1 million, but with extra steaming, port costs and damages under the charter party, the claim amount reached USD 2.4 million.

A claim came before the New York district court, where the independent Marine survey company was sued, it being alleged that the surveyor failed to detect grains of Barley in the holds and should not have declared that the holds were fit to receive the cargo of fertilizer.

As is known, the difficulties associated with this type of survey are well known to us and it is difficult, if not sometimes impossible, to be satisfied that all residue of previous cargo, and significant rust, is not present in the holds. These surveys require considerable time and care, often even assistance and equipment to carry them out properly.

In this claim, the Independent Marine survey company were grateful the district court judge lay 50% of the blame on the shippers, who apparently failed to draw attention to the extremely high standards of cleanliness required by New Zealand authorities.

The judge also contended that the shippers should have assumed a responsibility because a much higher fee should have been expected to be paid if the survey company was expected to assume a much higher standard of responsibility — or else they should have expected the independent Marine survey company to decline the survey in the absence of an appropriate fee.  The fee declared by the independent Marine survey company to the shippers was a mere USD 50/- per hold, upon profuse bargaining by the appointed local agents trying to impress his principals ship Master.

Nevertheless the judge was also critical of the independent Marine survey company that the fees charged should have had no connection with the diligence required and the risks involved.

Independent marine survey-Lessons learned for all independent Marine surveyors:

In his judgement, the district court judge also pointed out that the attending surveyor should have only stated what he actually saw and should have specifically reported only on those areas where he could gain access.

This is sound advice to us independent Marine surveyors; surveyors should make it clear that whenever and whatever, for one or various reasons, we have been unable to carry out the survey to the required standards. This should be clearly written down.

In some surveys of cargo, it is often difficult, impractical or at times expensive to examine every item.

Surveyors may thus be obliged to form an opinion on a limited sighting or sampling and that may be quite acceptable BUT we need to say so in the report and express any limitations, and this is of utmost importance.

This applies to all ‘fit-for purpose’ surveys where there are often reasons (operational, commercial, structural) why the extent of a survey is restricted BUT it is important that our clients are made aware of them.

Making the appropriate remarks to this effect in the survey report is essential, but there are times when the surveyor’s responsibility may raise much before our client receives and reads the report. In this case, and many others, the written report may have arrived too late for the client to make a decision on what could have been done as a consequence of the limitations of the survey.

Prompt notification is therefore essential prior all condition surveys of holds or structural integrity surveys.

Although mention is made of situations where an independent Marine surveyor may be constrained with restrictions on the extent of his reporting, this should not be construed as an opportunity or an easy excuse for not bothering to do everything reasonable to overcome those restrictions. The professional “duty of care” MUST prevail at all times.

The use of disclaimers in reports where a little more care and trouble might have resulted in a better survey, will rarely be of much protection for the surveyor. He can expect to pay the price for his lack of care and attention and most importantly, due diligence.

To summarize the take away from this blog: 

  1. SEEING IS SURVEYING – Surveyors should have a look, miss nothing, then stop and write notes.
  2. Report only what you see, and absence of anything you would expect to see, and this should be noted in the formal report.
  3. Try and refrain from forming opinions on limited sightings, as far as possible and not without expressing limitations. “Hear and Say” reporting is NOT what one sends us on board for.
  4. Disclaimers made in reports are no excuse for the extra effort required to overcome survey restrictions. Discuss, email and point out what should have had to be covered.
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Marine cargo inspections https://constellationms.com/marine-cargo-inspections/ Wed, 27 Sep 2017 09:06:30 +0000 http://nutricorp.kwayythemes.com/?p=1548 Marine cargo inspections- during loading of heavy cargo unit in export containers

Constellation Marine Services have well trained marine cargo surveyors who can advise the client the manner, type of stow , equipment to be used in loading the heavy cargo unit and also the lashing /securing arrangement needed for the cargo to reach the same safely at the destined port. The marine cargo surveyor from Constellation Marine Services would also monitor the loading operation to ensure the cargo unit is safely loaded into the container without any untoward incident.

Marine cargo inspections – Why is a Professional & qualified Marine surveyor required?

There are many occasions where the receiver/consignee has lodged a claim against the shipper for receiving the shipment in damaged condition at destination due to improper stowage and failure and/or absence of securing arrangement for the cargo in the container.
To safe guard against such claims it would be advisable to appoint an experienced Marine Cargo Surveyors like Constellation Marine Services to carry out a cargo pre-loading survey during loading of the cargo into the export container.

There are many cases of reporting damage to container and cargo therein occurred during loading operation of the container on board the ship due bad stowage there by rejecting the container from loading.  The major damages generally noted are deformation and the side panels &roof panels bulging out due to   shifting of cargo and also breaking of floor board due the weight of the heavy cargo stored in. There are   also similar cases reporting damage found to the container during discharge at the destination port

 

Upon nominating the job to Constellation Marine Services a well experienced marine
cargo surveyor from the Constellation Team would be appointed to attend the preloading
cargo survey and he would examine the condition of cargo, mode of packing
and weight of the heavy cargo to be loaded into the export container.

Marine cargo Inspections -How Inspection done!

The marine cargo surveyor from Constellation Marine Services would also inspect the designated container externally and internally to ensure that the container in total is in a sound condition to load the heavy cargo unit. He would specifically inspect the condition of the floor board and lashing points available within the container. He would calculate the amount of dunnage required talking into account the gross weight of the cargo unit and load bearing capacity of the floor board.

The marine cargo surveyor also would advise the shipper /logistic party the type of lashing arrangement required to hold and secure the cargo in its original position in the container considering the stresses that may act upon the cargo during the voyage. He would examine the SWL of the lashing materials to be used and adequacy of the lashing /securing arrangement so that the heavy cargo unit arrives at destination safe and in sound condition thus protecting the shipper from any claim /liability against him.

The pre-loading condition survey in most cases is a must as per warranty clause in the policy cover issued by most of the insurance & P&I Clubs in order to prevent a loss so that the interested parties involved are protected.

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